CORONARY BYPASS OPERATIONS

CORONARY BYPASS OPERATIONS

Any operation using additional vessels to carry blood beyond narrowed and/or clotted arteries is called a CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING operation.

It is one of the most influential and thoroughly investigated operations of medical history.  It can be said to be the most durable (long-lasting) intervention in the treatment of coronary artery disease.  Vessels used in bypasses are taken from the chest, arms, legs, or stomach, or a combination of these. Arteries are more technically demanding to use than veins, but the results are more durable. The risk to the patient's life is only 1-3%. Risk factors include advanced age, heart and renal failure, diabetes, pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Operative risks dramatically increase in a patient who has had a heart attack and requires emergency surgery.  The benefits to such a patient are fewer and less durable. Even though age is a risk factor it is the patients with advanced age who get the most benefit because the operation increases their life expectancy more than it does that of younger patients. Additionally, bilateral use of chest arteries (mammary arteries) also was proved to help patients live longer and have fewer future operations. Operative techniques are still being improved, especially minimally invasive and robotic ones. The more we use arterial grafts in bypass operations, and the more carefully we manage risk factors postoperatively using such tools as medications, diet, and physical exercise, the better our long term results will be. Moreover, aggressive work on smoking cessation and on the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure are all likewise absolutely necessary.